J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2021 Mar 10:1932296821994825. doi: 10.1177/1932296821994825. Online ahead of print.
BACKGROUND: Blood glucose and insulin exhibit coordinated daily and hourly rhythms in people without diabetes (nonT1D). Although the presence and stability of these rhythms are associated with euglycemia, it is unknown if they (1) are preserved in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and (2) vary by therapy type. In particular, Hybrid Closed Loop (HCL) systems improve glycemia in T1D compared to Sensor Augmented Pump (SAP) therapies, but the extent to which either recapitulates coupled glucose and insulin rhythmicity is not well described. In HCL systems, more rapid modulation of glucose via automated insulin delivery may result in greater rhythmic coordination and euglycemia. Such precision may not be possible in SAP systems. We hypothesized that HCL users would exhibit fewer hyperglycemic event, superior rhythmicity, and coordination relative to SAP users.
METHODS: Wavelet and coherence analyses were used to compare glucose and insulin delivery rate (IDR) within-day and daily rhythms, and their coordination, in 3 datasets: HCL (n = 150), SAP (n = 89), and nonT1D glucose (n = 16).
RESULTS: Glycemia, correlation between normalized glucose and IDR, daily coherence of glucose and IDR, and amplitude of glucose oscillations differed significantly between SAP and HCL users. Daily glucose rhythms differed significantly between SAP, but not HCL, users and nonT1D individuals.
CONCLUSIONS: SAP use is associated with greater hyperglycemia, higher amplitude glucose fluctuations, and a less stably coordinated rhythmic phenotype compared to HCL use. Improvements in glucose and IDR rhythmicity may contribute to the overall effectiveness of HCL systems.